Cotton World: Cotton Textile Industry in India

The Textile industry includes cotton, woolen, silk, and synthetic textile industries. The textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. This industry would use pure raw materials. The weight of the net raw material and the weight of its production cloth are equal.

Transport fares have a huge impact on the establishment of the textile industry. This pure raw material can be planted in the cotton production area of ​​the factory or in the market (city) where the cloth will be sold.

The modern textile industry originated and developed in Britain, where yarn-making machines were invented from cotton. Cotton cloth making machines from Britain reached other countries of Europe, the United States, China, Japan, and India. At present, the textile industry is the most widespread industry in the world.

Factors of Cotton Textile Industry Development

These Physical and Socio-Economic factors are responsible for the location and development.

The Initial Factors of Cotton Textile Industry are:

  • Raw material
  • Climate
  • Energy resources
  • Water availability
  • Geography
  • Availability of Market 6: Location Factor 
  • Sufficient amount of Capital
  • Skill Labor Force
  • Government Patronage
  • Government Policy for Industrial Development 
  • Means of Transportation
  • Industrial Solid Waste Management

Types of Cotton

More specifically, cotton is classified with a genus of tropical and subtropical shrubs known as Gossypium.

There are 4 commercial species of cotton, the most common are:

  1. Gossypium Hirsutum, (A variety native to Mesoamerica, Mexico, Florida, and the Caribbean)
  2. Arboreum or “tree cotton,” (It grows in India and Pakistan)
  3. Barbadebse or “Creole,” or “Egyptian” cotton, (A South American variety)
  4. Herbaceum or “Levantine” cotton (Native to southern Africa and the Middle East)

Why Textile Industry Worldwide?

Following are the reasons why the textile industry is wide and worldwide:

  1. Cloth is a basic requirement: Cotton Cloth is the demand of every person. Its demand always remains.
  2. Mechanization: With the help of machines, illiterate workers can also weave cloth.
  3. Cotton is produced in many countries of the world.
  4. Thread is not a perishable item.
  5. The transportation of its raw materials and pucca goods (clothes) does not differ significantly in the fare.

Cotton Textile Industry in the World:

Cotton textile industry in the world, especially the United States of America, China, Central Asian Republic, Egypt, Italy, France, Spain, Germany, Netherlands, Japan, South Korea, Russia, Ukraine, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Myanmar, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, South Africa, Nigeria, Australia, and New Zealand, etc.

Top 10 Cotton Textile Industries in the World

RankCountryCotton Production in Thousand Metric Tonnes
1China6,532
2India6,423
3United States3,553
4Pakistan2,308
5Brazil1,524
6Uzbekistan849
7Turkey697
8Australia501
9Turkmenistan332
10Mexico297

Cotton Textile Industry in India:

This industry provides employment to a large population of India. The cotton textile industry is established in every state of India on a small or large scale. A large amount of foreign exchange is earned by exporting cotton textiles. The cotton textile industry employs 18 percent of the people of India. Cotton textiles account for 20% of India’s total exports.

From the observation of Table 10.48, it is found that the maximum production of cotton textile is in Maharashtra (38.89%) followed by Gujarat (34.54%), Tamil Nadu (6.40%). Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Puducherry, Karnataka, and Kerala are notable names among other cotton textile producing states.

Among the main problems of the cotton textile industry, lack of raw materials (cotton), old machines, lack of energy, strike. There is competition against artificial textiles and competition in the international market.

Major industrial centers of cotton textile in India are Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat, Bhavnagar, Rajkot, Solapur, Nagpur, Pune, Bhopal, Ratlam, Indore, Ujjain, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Agra, Bareilly, Kanpur, Meerut, Modinagar, Moradabad, Hathras, Varanasi, Howrah, Kolkata, Murshidabad, Patna, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Phagwara, Hisar, Bhiwani, Beawar, Bhilwara, Bangalore, Mysore, Pondicherry, Chennai, Coimbatore, Erode, Alve, Kochi, and Trichur, etc.

Statewise Production of Cotton Cloth in India

Statewise Production of Cotton Cloth in India

Rank

State

Cotton Production in Sq. Meters

1

Maharastra

400,550

2

Gujarat

355,745

3

Tamil Nadu

65,850

4

Punjab

56,850

5

Madhya Pradesh

48,500

6

Uttar Pradesh

32,850

7

Rajasthan

28,880

8

Pondicherry

25,250

9

Karnataka

8,500

10

Kerala

6,850

History of Cotton Textile Industry in India

The cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in India. Dhake’s muslin was famous all over the world. A modern cotton textile factory in India was set up in 1818 at the Fort Gloster site near Calcutta (Kolkata), but the effort was not successful.

Thereafter, a cotton textile factory was set up in Mumbai in 1851. In 1958, cotton textile factories were set up at Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Pune, Solapur, Kolhapur, Kanpur, Nagpur, Madras, Chennai, Coimbatore, Erode, Madurai, Tuticorin, Alve, Elappi, Kochi and Thrissur.

Until the 15th century, India had more than one car in cotton textiles. India’s cotton and silk textiles were in great demand in European countries. But after the coming of East India Company, this industry lost. The British exported cotton from India and established cotton textile factories in England and India became an important market for British finished clothes.

C.N., the first cotton textile factory in India. Dewar (C.N. Dewar) planted it in 1854 in Mumbai (erstwhile Bombay). The industry grew at a rapid pace in the 19th and twentieth centuries. Currently, the main cotton textile producing countries of India are Fig. The production of cotton textiles in various states is shown in 10.29 and in table 10.47.

Cotton Export From India

India ranks second in textile exports in the world. India exports cotton textiles to Russia, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, United States, Norway, Sweden, Australia, Nepal, Ethiopia, Kenya, Saudi-Arabia, and Gulf countries.

Problems faced by the Cotton Textile Industry in India:

The cotton textile industry of India is facing many problems. The major problems of this industry are described in the following:

  • Lack of Raw Materials:

Raw materials account for 35% of cotton textile production. There is a shortage of good quality cotton in India. India imports long-fiber cotton from Egypt, Sudan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, and the United States.

  • Old Machines (Obsolete Machinery):

Most of the cotton textile factories of India are old machines, which have low capacity and the quality of production is also poor.

  • Shortage of Power:

The lack of energy in the cotton textile industry adversely affects production.

  • Competition in the International Market:

There is huge competition in the world market from China, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

  • Losses Cotton Textile factory (Sick Mills):

There are more than a hundred textile factories in India which are in need of financial assistance.

  • Strikes and Lockout:

Repeated strikes of workers and lockout by the owners of factories also have a poor effect on production.

  • Slow pace of Modernization:

The installation of new machines in place of old machines of cotton textile factories is taking place at a very slow pace.

Measures to Solve Problem of Cotton Textile Industry

Meanwhile, the Government of India has taken some positive steps to improve the conditions of the cotton textile industry in India. These steps are:

  1. Increasing financial support for its modernization,
  2. Reduction in import duty on imports of textile machinery,
  3. The excise duty cut on finer yarn,
  4. Establishment of National Textile Corporation (NTC) to run sick units,
  5. Introduction of new textile policy in 1985 for modernization and expansion of this industry.

In recent years, several policy measures have been adopted to improve the health of the cotton textile industry.

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